Solar Monitoring Installation

For remote monitoring or field monitoring, the power supply is difficult, generally using solar monitoring system is more, but for solar monitoring system how to achieve? How is it constructed?

These questions are often asked by weak electricity people, in this issue we look at the solar monitoring system design and construction solutions, step by step details of solar monitoring system installation. Solve the real-life problems of long-distance solar monitoring and transmission.

Solar Monitoring Principle

  1. Solar monitoring principles

We all know that solar energy is an inexhaustible, clean and environmentally friendly new energy, but to install monitoring in the field due to the installation environment is located in a sparsely populated, harsh environment, generally no normal, stable AC power supply.

In this case, solar or wind power generation system can be used to solve the on-site power supply problem. The solar power system works on the principle of converting the sun’s light energy into electrical energy, and the solar charge/discharge control acts as a central control device, storing the electrical energy converted by the solar modules in the battery bank on the one hand, and controlling the battery bank to supply power to the load equipment on the other. If alternating current (AC) power supply is required in the load equipment, the DC power is reversed to AC power through the inverter. According to the system equipment power demand, the output of 12V/24V/36V/48/220V and other different voltages to meet the power supply needs of a variety of equipment, the system runs reliably and stably to meet the harsh outdoor working environment.

Solar monitoring is mainly used in the field and urban areas where wiring is not convenient, such as: construction sites, reservoirs and dams, river water level, fishery and forest monitoring, forest fire prevention, island monitoring, border monitoring, single-army detection and so on.

Solar monitoring can adopt 4G integrated network camera, which can be directly inserted into the 4G flow card of three major network operators to monitor the site in real time, making up for the common monitoring on the market for difficult construction and no network and no electricity environment.

As long as there is an internet connection, you can monitor the site in real time.

Solar Monitoring Installation

Preparation for installation

  1. check 4G coverage

The method is relatively simple, prepare a phone that supports 4G card and a 4G traffic card, to the need to install the location to check whether the phone’s signal has a 4G logo, and play online video is smooth, at the same time, pay attention to the three carriers: China Telecom, China Unicom and China Mobile 4G signal coverage, priority to the strongest signal carriers. If there is no 4G signal in the installation environment, you can use a bridge to connect.

  1. Check the geographical conditions of the location of the solar mast.

The panels are installed facing south at a 45 degree angle, our solar panel bracket has been adjusted to the angle, only the clamps are needed to install.

Avoid blocking between panels. This includes surrounding buildings (utility poles, corners of houses, etc.).

  1. Preparation of poles for installation

First of all, the climate and the surrounding environment of the installation construction site are investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing the construction plan. The following principles were followed in selecting the construction site.

There must be no obstruction around the installation site to ensure that the solar modules can be properly lit.

The installation site must have smooth drainage to prevent the foundation from slipping.

The installation site can not be laid underground cable, fiber optic cable and other public facilities, which will affect the installation.

Solar monitoring foundation construction

Foundation excavation: Subject to the design of the green belt, sidewalk excavation foundation pit, according to road safety standards for civilized construction hanging obvious warning signs to prevent pedestrians from falling into, timely removal of soil.

Monitoring foundation pouring steps: placing ground cage, installing grounding, burying pipeline (optical, electrical pipeline), pouring concrete (C25), using vibrator to discharge the air in the concrete, playing level to adjust the angle, installing molds (production of various sizes) maintenance, hanging warning signs.

Foundation pouring standard: Concrete proportioning (C25 mix) is carried out in strict accordance with inspection requirements, and the 90mm diameter PVC buried pipe is inserted into the hand well on the side, when pouring, need to hit the level to straighten the ground dragon, pay attention to the outermost 2 screws need to be flush with the road direction (monitoring direction) (error ≤ 0.5°). After the foundation is poured, the surface cement should be refined, and the foundation should be covered with film for seven consecutive days. Take photos during the construction (length, width, depth, panoramic view of the pit, poured vibration, poured completion), and fill out the concealed project record sheet to report and sign after acceptance by the supervisor.

Excavation foundation dimensions:

4m pole height foundation.

6 m pole height foundation.

Pole lifting: installation of monitoring pole steps: lifting pole, stringing network cable, signal cable, power cable from the cross arm to the equipment box, hoisting by crane installation fixed (bolt fixed after wiping grease for rust prevention measures), night road construction vehicles playing double flash, construction work surface to 30 meters in front of reflective cone as a warning, and arrange a personnel to maintain traffic. Take photos and keep records during the installation process.

Installation standard of the pole: the pole body is horizontal and vertical to the ground (error ≤ 0.5°), ensure that the pole body is firmly welded to the grounding bus (resistance value not greater than 0.1 Ω), ensure that the pole is firmly combined with the ground dragon, the ground dragon bolt is treated with anti-corrosion, oxidation resistance and security (the screw is greased), ensure that the pole body is closely combined with the distribution box, ensure that the cross-arm opening direction is perpendicular to the road direction (error ≤ 1°). The wire is threaded well in advance of the pole-making process to facilitate later threading.

Solar Monitoring Installation

Solar monitoring foundation construction

Solar panels

The role of solar panels is to convert the sun’s radiant energy directly into direct current for load use or stored in a battery for backup, it is one of the most important components of the solar power system, its conversion rate and service life is an important factor in determining whether the solar cells have value of use. Solar photovoltaic panels can be made up of solar arrays of various sizes, also known as solar arrays. The power output capacity of solar panels is closely related to the size of its area, the larger the area, the greater the output power under the same lighting conditions.

Solar panels are generally composed of cells, module frames, tempered glass, encapsulation materials and junction boxes.

Solar charge and discharge controller

In the solar power generation system, the charge and discharge controller plays an important role in the whole system, playing the role of system management and organizational core. Solar charge and discharge controller can provide the best charging current and voltage for the battery, fast, smooth and efficient charging for the battery, and in the charging process to reduce losses and extend the service life of the battery; at the same time to protect the battery, to avoid overcharging and over-discharge phenomenon.

Battery pack

The battery pack is an important and indispensable component of the independent solar power system. The battery bank stores the DC power from the solar array for use by the load. In the solar power system, the battery is in the state of floating charge. During the daytime, the solar array supplies power to the load, while the battery array also charges the battery.

The battery mainly includes

lead-acid maintenance-free battery, lithium iron phosphate battery.

Advantages

cheap lead-acid batteries, below 0 degrees in the north as usual work, the service life of about 4 years iron phosphate lithium batteries small size, service life of more than 8 years, completely free of any maintenance.

Disadvantages

lead-acid battery decent is very large, can only be buried, at least once a year to open the maintenance to replace the battery water.

Inverter

As the direct output of solar cells are generally DC, in order to be able to provide power to the use of AC power equipment, the solar power generation system should be issued by the DC energy into AC power, so you need to use DC-AC inverter. Sometimes also according to the needs of the equipment operating voltage, the use of transformers to boost voltage.

Solar Front End Power Calculation and Configuration

Determination of power and daily power consumption of monitoring equipment

The prerequisite for determining the power and configuration of solar power generation is to determine the power and power consumption of the front-end equipment (load) to be powered. Through the manufacturer’s technical information and experimental methods can determine the power of the equipment, all equipment power (note: adapter power supply, power = equipment rated power / adapter efficiency) is the arithmetic sum of the total power W, which can determine the daily power consumption of the load P.P=W*24h/K

K is the inverter efficiency If the output voltage of the solar panel and the battery is 12V, the daily power consumption capacity of the load equipment Q=P/12V.

If the output voltage of the solar panel and the battery is 24V, the daily power consumption capacity of the load equipment Q=P/24V.

Battery capacity design

The capacity of the battery is extremely important to ensure continuous power supply. The solar array daily power generation in addition to the equipment consumption, but also a part of the extra power storage to the battery for night and rainy days.

The capacity of the battery Q’ is calculated by the formula.

Q’=γ*Q*N’*τ/C(AH)

In the formula.

(a) γ is the safety factor, which is between 1.1 and 1.4.

Q is the daily power consumption capacity of the load equipment.

N’ is the maximum number of consecutive days of rain.

τ is the temperature correction coefficient, generally 1 for above 0℃, 1.1 for above -10℃, 1.2 for below -10℃; C is the discharge depth of battery, generally 0.75 for lead-acid batteries.

C is the depth of battery discharge, generally lead-acid batteries are 0.75.

Solar Monitoring Installation

Solar Panel Installation

  1. Preparatory work

(1). Selection of disassembly and assembly site: The disassembly and assembly site should be near the installation site to facilitate transportation after assembly. In addition, the installation site is covered with a rainproof cloth, which can be placed on the ground due to bumps or sand and dirt, causing abrasion, scratches and stains.

(2). Installers and tools: 1~2 professional installers (additional installers can be added when the installation task is heavier), each equipped with a set of installation tools, including a multimeter, a set of hexagonal wrenches, a flat screwdriver, triangle lock tooling, a Phillips screwdriver and a pair of pliers, insulation tape, waterproof tape and other rolls.

(3). Count the parts in accordance with the list of goods; disassemble and check the parts one by one with reference to the packing list and check if there is any damage such as bump, abrasion, deformation and scratches, and the installation of unqualified goods is prohibited.

(4). Solar modules and wearable accessories (such as solar cell modules, monitoring equipment, etc.) must be placed on soft mats to avoid unnecessary damage such as scratches in the installation process.

  1. Solar module installation

(1). Assemble the mast assembly and adjust the orientation of the mast and the solar cell components. When assembling the mast, tighten the bolts at the connections, apply even force, and use thread locking glue if necessary.

(2). Borrow pre-threaded threading wire to thread the wire. When threading the wire, do not pull on it to avoid scratching or even breaking the sheath wire. The sheath wire connected to the solar cell module and power supply must have sufficient margin; the power cord connected to the controller must be bent downward to prevent water from flowing into the terminal along the wire.

(3). Install the solar cell module.

Module fixing: bolting and fastening the two sides of the solar cell module.

When placing the solar cell module, the junction box shall be kept with the connecting wires down.

Principles of wiring between solar cell modules.

  1. The terminals of the sheath cable and the solar cell module shall be connected.
  2. the sheathing line runs through the pole body and must not be exposed.
  3. After wiring, use multimeter to check if each line is correct. Note: The battery components should be held gently and put down gently during the installation process to avoid the damage of tools and other appliances.

Solar Monitoring Installation

wind and solar complementary

  1. What is wind energy supplementation?

In order to improve the production efficiency of the power sector, it will become necessary for each substation/station to be unmanned. A monitoring center will be established in the power dispatching communication center to monitor each substation/station through real-time video images, so as to understand and grasp the situation of each substation/station in real time and respond to the situation in time to meet the development needs of the industry.

In view of this situation, the use of wind-solar wireless monitoring system will be able to effectively realize monitoring and management. On the one hand, the system collects and encodes the video data from the substations/stations, and stores the data in local storage devices so that they can be replayed and investigated afterwards; on the other hand, it enables the monitoring center to unify monitoring and management through 4G wireless or bridge transmission devices.

  1. Key points of system design

(1). Wireless transmission Due to the characteristics of monitoring point’s own environment, it is impossible to use wired or fiber optic cable for transmission, so wireless transmission should be chosen for data transmission. At present, 4G wireless transmission technology is mature and widely used, with high signal coverage, convenient deployment and other characteristics, is the best choice for the system design.

(2). Also due to the characteristics of the monitoring point’s own environment, the power supply of the equipment can not guarantee the supply of mains power, so to ensure that the equipment works normally around the clock, the corresponding power supply system has become the focus of the system design. Solar power supply system consists of solar cell arrays composed of solar cell modules, solar charging control device, inverter, battery group composition. Solar power system in clear daylight can be converted from solar energy into electrical energy, power to the load at the same time, but also to charge the battery; in the absence of light, the battery can be powered by the load. Considering the possibility of extremely bad weather without sunlight for a long period of time, wind power supply system can provide a greater guarantee of power supply. Therefore, wind energy discharge system will be the best choice to ensure the power supply of the equipment.

(3). lightning safety and reliability grounding.

Outdoor monitoring system’s weakness is the front-end lightning and grounding, front-end equipment, lightning and grounding directly affect the safety and reliability of the project, ignoring the lightning and grounding will bring huge losses to the user, lightning principle is that all equipment should be installed in the lightning protection within the scope of the rod, grounding resistance is not greater than 10 ohms, lightning and grounding of its own characteristics is determined by the environment and affect the actual lightning effect, so out of the specific circumstances of the project location and design lightning and grounding is on paper, and not feasible.

  1. Video system topology and system components

Video surveillance system topology diagram

The monitoring system consists of 3 main parts: front-end acquisition unit, wireless transmission unit and central management unit.

Front-end Acquisition Unit

The front-end acquisition unit is composed of a video server, a wind-solar power supply system and an external acquisition device. It collects real-time video data from the scene through the external camera and other acquisition devices, and stores the video data to the local storage device. The front-end acquisition unit is equipped with a power supply system to ensure that the equipment can continue to work normally under no light, no wind, or no light and no wind.

Wireless transmission unit

The Wireless Transmission Unit (WTU) is responsible for the remote transmission of the data required by the user.

Solar Monitoring Installation

  1. Central Management Unit

The central management unit is responsible for the monitoring and management of each front-end acquisition unit, including real-time video monitoring, historical video playback, historical video interception, image capture and other functions.

Front-end power supply system design

  1. Wind turbine functional parameters
  • Starting wind speed is low, small volume, beautiful appearance, light running vibration.
  • Using humanized design, which is convenient for the installation, maintenance and overhaul of the equipment.
  • Aluminum alloy body, wind turbine blades are made of nylon fiber material, with optimized pneumatic shape design and mechanism design, low starting wind speed, high wind energy utilization coefficient, and increase the annual power generation capacity.
  • The generator adopts the patented technology of permanent magnet rotor alternator with special stator design, which effectively reduces the resistance torque of the generator, and makes the wind turbine and generator have better matching characteristics, and the reliability of the unit operation.
  • Use of maximum power tracking intelligent microprocessor control, effective regulation of current and voltage.