Meaning of green building
The Green Building Evaluation Standard GB/T50378-2019 defines green building as: under the premise of ensuring building safety and quality, applying new design concepts and methods, realizing energy conservation and emission reduction, protecting the environment, reducing pollution and providing the public with a healthy and suitable building space during the project life cycle, with the goal of realizing the harmonious development of man and nature as a new type of building project. Today, green building has become an important development goal of China’s construction industry.
- The main characteristics of green building (1) green building technology in use can quickly adapt to human and natural conditions, green building projects are not a specific project, and its implementation mode has diversified and developmental characteristics, focusing on the actual use of the building effect, with clear technical application goals, and effectively enhance the economic, ecological and social benefits of the building. (2) Compared with ordinary building projects, green building projects are more common, and all of them are aimed at promoting better and faster development of the construction industry, so as to reach a new height. Green building uses new technology to make up for the defects of traditional building technology and make the building sustainable.
- The main content of green building (1) indoor environment. In terms of indoor environment, it is necessary to ensure the overall thermal balance of the human body, pay attention to the special requirements of temperature for each part of the body, and actively use natural energy. In terms of lighting, it mainly adopts non-polluting and good light color daylight as the main light source, and adjusts the intensity of natural light according to different time and place. In the sound environment, to reduce the noise as far as possible, will produce noise equipment arranged in the position away from the room or sound insulation measures. (2) Outdoor environment. Focus on the combination of building engineering, climate characteristics, economic conditions, humanistic concepts, etc., to form a linkage of the outdoor environment, using natural wind, green environment and control of the building surroundings and other factors as far as possible, to improve the use of wind and light energy, to ensure the coordination and balance of the indoor and outdoor environment.
Application concept of green building technology in building design
- Safety durability
The design of the building project site should be safe enough, otherwise there should be a sound security system. Building engineering function and load-bearing performance should comply with green building design standards, and doors, windows, exterior walls, roofs, etc. should be safe and durable. External air conditioners, external shading facilities, and solar energy facilities use integrated design forms and provide good conditions for maintenance, installation, and operation and maintenance. Non-structural equipment, components and related equipment must be connected securely, no structural deformation, and the external windows must be sufficiently closed and solid, with compression resistance and watertightness to meet green building technical standards. Waterproof layer must be set up in parts prone to leakage, and moisture-proof layer must be added to walls and other parts. Public space to meet the rescue, evacuation requirements . In short, to ensure safety and durability is the premise of green building design.
- Resource conservation
Green building technology implements the concept of resource recycling and conservation, so it must focus on design solutions with higher resource efficiency to reduce the loss and energy consumption of construction projects. Saving resources helps reduce project costs and achieve green design goals. As an industry strongly advocated by China, green architecture should actively promote the utilization rate of building materials and facilities, improve the utilization rate of building resources, and protect the overall benefits of the project. Green building design focuses on the coordination of people, houses and ecology, and the building plays a turning role between the three, reducing energy consumption, saving resources and alleviating the contradiction between human and natural development through the building facade, doors and windows, water supply and drainage, electrical and other systems. Such as in the construction of a collection pond is responsible for collecting rainwater, rainwater can be used for construction site dust reduction, if a filtration system is set in the pond, it can be used directly in the construction of the project. Construction wastewater can be discharged directly after treatment without causing pollution to the environment. The building materials are mainly high-performance, low energy consumption and renewable, and the use of traditional materials is reduced as much as possible.
- Health and Comfort
Health and comfort is people’s basic requirements for the construction project, people as the user of the construction project, the state strongly advocates “people-oriented”, building design must be based on human health, in addition to energy saving, but also ecological and environmental protection, prohibit the use of toxic and harmful substances to ensure the health of residents. Although some harmful substances can not be avoided, but volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde, ammonia and other pollution to meet the “indoor air quality standards” requirements. In addition, pools and water tanks should be well disinfected, and tap water storage facilities should be thoroughly disinfected every six months. Non-translucent structure surface shall not be exposed; external wall and heating surface shall not be condensed, and functional rooms shall be specially equipped with independent control of thermal environment regulator.
- Livability of the environment
In green building design, considering the construction project as a large consumer of energy and resources, the building in turn can be considered to have a very high energy-saving space. Compared to traditional buildings, green buildings transform high energy consumption into low energy consumption, high pollution into non-pollution, and continuously improve the utilization rate of building resources by adopting advanced energy saving and environmental protection technologies. In addition, through the innovation of building resources, it can limit the use of traditional resources and even achieve self-sufficiency by using local materials.
- Living Convenience
The overall layout of the building should consider whether the layout of outdoor areas, roads and green spaces is reasonable, and the accessibility between different buildings should be realized as much as possible to ensure the continuity of traffic. People should also be able to travel conveniently. For example, there should be comprehensive public facilities such as bus stops, supermarkets, parking lots, etc. within a 500m radius of the community. In addition to ordinary car parking spaces, there should be bicycle spaces, electric vehicle and motorcycle spaces and charging ports for hybrid cars to improve the convenience of residents’ life.
Green building technology in the design of the optimal combination of architectural design
- Green window and door design
Windows and doors is an important part of the building energy loss, if the doors and windows are not scientifically designed, will directly cause heat loss in winter, cold loss in summer, resulting in a serious waste of resources and energy. So in the door and window design, to follow the green building design concept, choose green doors and windows building materials. Today, China’s building materials market has a lot of good insulation, high light transmission, thermal insulation of good materials, these materials can play a better role in thermal insulation. Such as composite anti-radiation glass materials, this type of glass surface has a layer of semiconductor oxide, can absorb ultraviolet light, reduce light reflectivity, help alleviate the problem of architectural light pollution. In the structural design of doors and windows, double-layer vacuum glass doors and windows are mainly used, but also inert gas can be added between the glass interlayer to avoid gas leakage through high sealing materials, further enhancing the thermal insulation of doors and windows. Doors and windows and wall connections are also prone to leakage or heat loss site, to do a good job of joint decoration, improve the impermeability and aesthetics of doors and windows.
- Roof design
Roofing is prone to leakage, and the green building concept focuses on safety and durability, health and comfort, and ecological livability, so the waterproofing and thermal conductivity of the roof must be strictly controlled. Insulation material should be added between the roof panel and waterproof layer to improve the waterproofness and thermal insulation of the roof and to improve the stability of the environment inside the house. The roof can also adopt green design scheme, set up air garden on the roof, with strong adaptability and root system underdeveloped plants as the main, in summer under the plant evaporation can play the role of cooling and moisturizing, in winter roof soil can also play the role of insulation. According to the relevant research shows that in the objective environment unchanged, the building around the temperature by 1 ℃ can save air-conditioning power consumption 6kW-h, can reduce power loss. Roof greening can also absorb carbon dioxide, realizing low-carbon life and increasing the oxygen content around the building. Roof structure design is based on the principle of “external structure design first, internal structure design second”. If the internal structure design is the main focus, it will take up too much indoor space, which will not compensate for the loss, and improve the utilization rate of internal space, which is more in line with green building design standards.
- Interior Decoration Design
The focus of interior decoration design is material selection, toxic and harmful materials are not used or used as little as possible, the content of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene substances must meet green building design standards. The choice of decoration materials to green, safe, environmentally friendly materials, to protect the ecology of interior decoration, and do a good job of the inspection of the materials, such as paints, coatings, etc. to detect toxic and harmful gases, the preparation of test reports, if the toxic and harmful gases exceed the standard to eliminate the use. In the choice of marble, tiles and other materials, custom products should be sent to the inspection department for testing, potassium and radium elements must meet green building standards. The new period, China’s building materials market launched a lot of green materials, need to combine the use of requirements, quality requirements, economic requirements of scientific selection.
- Renewable energy design
Ground source heat pumps are also a new green building technology that increases the use of clean energy, regulates building temperature by storing and releasing heat energy, and maintains indoor temperature stability in the face of large temperature changes in the external environment. Ground-source heat pumps store heat from the sun during the day and release heat at night when the temperature is low, reducing indoor temperature differences. Especially for southern buildings, as there is no heating in the south in winter, so ground source heat pumps can improve the indoor comfort in winter, while the application of ground source heat pumps in the north can reduce heating energy consumption and reduce the use of traditional coal resources. Many high-grade district has applied the ground source heat pump facilities, compared to the ordinary form of heating can reduce energy consumption by 20%, the use of air conditioning reduced by 15% -20%. Ground source heat pump adopts high closure design scheme, heat loss is very low, long service life, high green energy efficiency. Solar hot water design scheme can also be used, that is, set up on the roof of the solar battery array, and tank heating system connection, tap water heating, increase the initial temperature of the water pipe discharge, reduce the power loss of the water heater.
- Building form and energy-saving design
Optimization With the improvement of people’s living standard and the intensification of competition in the real estate industry, people have new demands on the appearance of buildings when purchasing houses, which not only meet the requirements of aesthetics in construction projects, but also have high practicality. In order to meet the design requirements of green buildings, the green building design must do a good job in the shape of the planning work, requiring both beautiful and environmental protection. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to integrate green building technology with the design scheme, optimize each construction process, ensure the efficiency of the design scheme, increase the use of materials, reduce the loss of resources and energy, and achieve the goal of environmental protection and low consumption. The green building design should use quantitative analysis method to replace the perception of traditional building design, improve the quality of building design through computer model, combine with past work experience, reasonably deduce the amount of building energy consumption, and optimize the building design according to the calculation results.
- Intelligent Design
With the introduction of new technologies and environmental protection concepts, intelligent green buildings have received attention and importance. Compared with traditional buildings, intelligent green buildings have more functions, resource consumption and energy consumption are effectively reduced, with the dual advantages of environmental protection and green, and has gradually become the future trend of the construction industry. Among them, the building automatic control system can further strengthen and improve the building function, so that people’s quality of life and quality of life has been greatly improved, also received more and more attention.
In the intelligent green building, the building automatic control system can monitor or monitor the entire project of heating and ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration, indoor and outdoor lighting, power distribution, water supply and drainage, elevator monitoring and other subsystems and corresponding facilities, and at the same time, reasonable control of the timer switch and equipment start and stop button. The building automatic control system can not only save operating costs and extend the service life of equipment effectively, but also make environmental protection and energy saving goals to be achieved, and better meet the needs of the sustainable development of intelligent green building.
In summary, green building as an important trend in the development of China’s construction industry, in order to better meet the goal of energy conservation and environmental protection, green energy-saving construction, the need to further strengthen the research of green building technology, and actively adopt new materials, new technology, new equipment, new technology, through the “four new” to promote China’s green building development process, to minimize energy loss, environmental pollution, so as to achieve the sustainable development goals of China’s construction industry.