In recent years, with the continuous development of green building technology and the continuous improvement of the building energy saving market, it also drives the speeding up of the renewal of green energy saving technology, what are the main building energy saving technologies on the market at present?
Efficient thermal insulation system for exterior walls
The fatal flaw of internal thermal insulation is that it can not avoid cold bridge, easy to form condensation and thus destroy the wall, so whether from the thermal insulation effect or from the solidity and safety of the external finishes installed, external thermal insulation and decorative dry hanging technology are the best external wall insulation method.
The form of external thermal insulation can effectively form the building thermal insulation system, achieve better thermal insulation effect, reduce the generation of thermal bridges, secondly, the air layer between the thermal insulation layer and the external finishes can form an effective natural ventilation to reduce the air conditioning load, save energy and exclude moisture to protect the thermal insulation material, finally, the external finishes have pendant fixing, non-adhesive, no danger of falling and injuring people.
Heat preservation effect is obvious
Insulation materials are placed on the outside of the building’s exterior walls, basically eliminating the influence of “thermal bridge” in all parts of the building. So as to give full play to the performance of lightweight and efficient insulation materials, compared to the internal insulation of the external wall and sandwich insulation wall, it can use thinner insulation materials, to achieve a higher energy-saving effect.
Protection of the main structure
The insulation layer placed on the outside of the building greatly reduces the effects of natural temperature, humidity, ultraviolet rays, etc. on the main structure. The vertical thermal expansion and contraction of the building may cause cracks in some non-structural components inside the building, while the use of external insulation technology can reduce the temperature of the structure of the internal stress generated by the use of external walls.
It helps to improve the indoor environment
External insulation can increase the thermal stability of the interior. To a certain extent, it prevents the erosion of rainwater on the wall, improves the moisture-proof performance of the wall, can avoid indoor condensation, mold, etc., thus creating a comfortable indoor living environment.
Expanding the use of space in the home
Compared with internal thermal insulation, the use of external thermal insulation increases the usable area of each household by 1.3-1.8m.
Facilitates enrichment of the façade
In the construction of external insulation, polystyrene board can also be used to make concave or convex wall lines, and other shapes of decorations, not only convenient construction, but also enrich the building facade.
Comparison of different exterior thermal insulation systems
Efficient window and door systems and construction technology
The external window insulation system consists of the following three parts: broken aluminum alloy window frame; insulating glass; and broken node treatment technology for connecting the window frame to the window opening.
Insulated glass windows with broken-bridge aluminium alloy windows are installed on the exterior, while air leakage and cold air infiltration and heat loss are reduced by improving the precision of window fabrication and installation and by adding seals.
With high-performance windows and doors, the performance of the glass is critical. High-performance glass products have one to several times the thermal insulation performance of ordinary insulating glass.
For example, single-sided coated Low-E insulating glass, its thermal conductivity of about 1.7w/m2k, thermal insulation performance than ordinary insulating glass doubled, Germany’s new energy-saving thermal insulation glass U value reached 0.5, 900px brick wall than ordinary plus 150px polystyrene insulation layer insulation effect is better.
Thermal bridge blocking structure technology
Thermal bridge is a shortcut for heat transfer, not only causing considerable heat loss, but also local condensation, especially in the building exterior walls, windows and other systems to improve thermal insulation performance significantly, the problem becomes more and more prominent.
Therefore, in the design and construction, should be such as window holes, balcony panels, prominent ring beam, and structural columns and other locations using a certain way of thermal insulation, the thermal bridge blocking, to achieve better thermal insulation and energy saving effect and increase comfort.
Thermal bridge blocking technology in foreign countries has excellent technology and extensive application, such as the elimination of cold balcony slab bridge structure, there are very mature products, such as “steel / insulation insulation material buried parts” and so on. This product is embedded in the construction of concrete slab, construction is simple, the effect is very good. Domestic fully capable of developing such products, will also have a good market response.
External shading facilities
External shading is the most effective shading facilities, which directly shade 80% of the sun’s radiant heat from the outdoors, effectively reducing the air-conditioning load and saving energy. Combined with the form of the building, a certain form of adjustable external sunshade can be installed in the south and west directions and adjusted according to the use of the situation, so as to meet the summer shading requirements without affecting the lighting and winter sunlight requirements. In addition, light and temperature sensing elements and electric actuators can be further installed to achieve intelligent automatic control, and shading facilities can be automatically adjusted according to indoor and outdoor temperature and sunlight intensity when no one is indoors, so as to reduce the influence of solar radiation and save energy.
The more traditional external shading system is the roller shutter external shading system, which can effectively block the sunlight in summer when the sunlight is strong.
The more advanced is composed of tempered glass (ice glass) external shading system.
External shading system structure (from outside to inside).
(1). 12 mm thick sliding translucent tempered glass sliding sunshade mosaic.
(2). The air layer.
(3). Exterior wall coatings, insulation and structures.
4). Exterior window systems.
Benefits of pairing tempered glass with insulating glass
The characteristic of insulating glass is that it allows the energy carried by sunlight to enter the room, but the heat from the room does not escape to the outdoors, which is extremely beneficial in winter and can be a problem in summer when the room temperature is too high.
When sunlight strikes the frosted surface of tempered glass, it creates a diffuse reflection and heat is then blocked from the outside.
The combination of tempered glass and insulating glass results in most of the sun’s heat being kept outside in the summer, solving the problem of western exposure.
As can be seen from the above diagram of the different glass structures and the noise effect, the combination of glacial glass and insulating glass can not only play a very good shading effect, but also minimize the impact of outdoor noise.
Inner shading facilities
Compared to external shading, internal shading facilities are less effective in blocking solar radiation, but they are necessary for residential buildings, both from the point of view of privacy and anti-glare. At the same time, it has a certain role in improving indoor comfort, reducing the air-conditioning load and beautifying the indoor environment.
House respiratory system
Residential eco-ventilation technology and the “house breathing” concept
Currently, there are two main types of residential powered ventilation systems used in Europe. One is the ventilation system of doors and windows + kitchen and bathroom exhaust fans. This one is cheap and simple to install; the disadvantage is noise interference and unsatisfactory ventilation effect.
The other one is the ventilation system of external wall air inlet equipment + bathroom air outlet + roof exhaust fan. At the same time of filtering air and reducing noise, it ensures indoor ventilation in a scientific and reasonable way, and discharges damp and polluted air in the bathroom with little noise interference.
Working principle and function
Fresh air from above, through filtration, dust removal, sterilization, heating / cooling, humidification / dehumidification and other processes, at a low speed of 0.3 meters per second, from the bottom of the room uninterrupted air supply outlet, two degrees below room temperature, the formation of a new wind in the ground tide, layers on top of each other, slowly rising, taking away the body indoor polluted gas, and finally, through the exhaust vent discharge.
Effectively regulate indoor air humidity, so that the room always keep dry, comfortable state, the damp air in Dalian summer has a strong dehumidifying effect. No need to open the window to get fresh air, reduce indoor heat loss and save energy. Expel the interior decoration caused by the possible long-term presence of harmful gases.
Three principles of new air system
Principle I: Defining ventilation paths
Fresh air enters from the cleaner air areas and exits from the dirty air. Generally, polluted air is exhausted from bathrooms, toilets, and kitchens, while fresh air is brought in from living rooms, bedrooms, and other areas.
Principle 2: Defining ventilation airflow
To meet the amount of fresh air that people need during their daily work and rest. According to national ventilation regulations, 30 cubic meters per person per hour must be guaranteed.
Principle 3: Defining the ventilation time
Guarantee the continuity of fresh air, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, continuous uninterrupted ventilation.
Green Roofing System
Green Roofing Technology
In this regard, there are mature green roofing techniques abroad that are suitable for different conditions and plant formations. For example, under normal conditions, plants that are easy to survive, low cost and do not require management, such as grasses and mosses, or plants that have good ornamental effect, require regular maintenance and have high requirements for soil thickness, can be planted.
This structure, on the one hand, to meet the different requirements of plant growth, water storage and ventilation problems; at the same time, the technical structure must ensure that the roof waterproofing of the building from the roots of the plant damage, thus improving the comfort of living.
Roof rainwater system
Siphon rainwater system is today’s more advanced international roofing discharge system, the system has been born so far has more than 20 years of history, it is widely used in a variety of complex roofing projects.
Siphon rainwater system is the use of different heights of potential energy difference, make piping system internal local produce vacuum, thus through siphon effect to achieve the purpose of rapid discharge of rainwater.
Community Intelligent System
One, two, three” of a district’s intelligent system.
One platform: integrated management network platform for intelligent community systems.
Two bases: control network and information network.
Three branches: security prevention system, equipment management system and information management system.
The intelligent system of the residential district is based on advanced, developed and backed up technologies that can meet and adapt to the needs of the residents, and apply mature and reliable products that are easy to integrate, expand, operate and maintain and at the same time reduce the overall cost of the system as much as possible, and realize the management and integration of equipment, functions and information of each subsystem through computer network and other related technologies. Make it become an interrelated, unified and coordinated system, system resources to achieve full sharing, in order to reduce the waste of resources and hardware equipment repeat input, to achieve the real sense of convenience, safety, practical, reliable.
Canopy heating and cooling system
The high performance engineering plastic pipe is laid in the concrete floor slab, the water temperature of the winter heating water inlet 33 ℃, the return water 30 ℃, the summer cooling water inlet 18 ℃, the return water temperature 21 ℃, through the cold and hot water temperature control, summer cooling, winter heating, indoor temperature constant in 20-26 ℃.
Winter floor will evenly emit 28 ℃ to 29 ℃ of heat, indoor temperature to make people feel warm and comfortable, the human body temperature of about 30 ℃, so there will not be a feeling of baking; summer floor temperature of 19 ℃ to 24 ℃, you can take away excessive heat indoors.
The heat exchange between people and the environment takes the largest proportion in the form of radiation, and about half of the heat is emitted from the head. The ceiling heating system uses radiation from the top for heating and cooling, which is healthier, more comfortable and more effective than ordinary methods.
This technology is used in Beijing Wanguo City. In the indoor temperature test, from the roof 0.5m, 1.0m, 1.5m height test, the temperature difference in 0.2-0.3, the human body is generally not easy to perceive the temperature difference, so the low temperature radiation heating and cooling method is currently the most comfortable in civil buildings.
Canopy heating and cooling system advantages.
- Heating and cooling in both winter and summer.
- The life of system materials is as long as the life of the building.
- Does not rely on outdoor enclosures and does not damage the appearance of the building.
- The medium for heat and cold exchange is water, which is environmentally friendly.
- Radiation emitted temperature regulation, no sense of wind and no sense of airflow.
- The system itself can automatically adjust the indoor temperature.
- Heating and cooling and fresh air replacement system is completely separated, healthy and efficient.
- High efficiency of radiant heating and cooling and uniform temperature.
- a more comfortable radiation pattern from top to bottom.
- Does not occupy an effective area of indoor use.
- The system is set in ceiling concrete and does not occupy interior openings.
Radiation temperature is lower than human skin temperature, no baking feeling.
Solar energy system
The use of solar energy in general can be divided into two categories: solar thermal panels collect heat and solar photovoltaic power generation. Solar collector panels collect heat technology is more mature, equipment and materials are not expensive, there are certain applications.
Ground source heat pump system
Ground-source coupled heat pump unit can be used as a cold and heat source system for supplying heat in winter and cold in summer for the air conditioning system, and also provide domestic hot water. It takes advantage of the relatively stable temperature characteristics of underground soil, rocks and groundwater, inputs a small amount of high-grade energy (such as electricity), and conducts heat exchange with soil, rocks and groundwater through buried pipeline system. The heat energy is transported out through the heat pump to heat the building and provide domestic hot water.
The energy consumption of ground source coupled heat pump is very low, only 25%-35% of the energy consumption of the conventional system, which is composed of water circulation system, heat exchanger, ground source heat pump unit, air conditioning end and control system.
The cogeneration of heat, heat and electricity uses coal or gas to generate primary steam and steam turbine to provide electricity, and at the same time fully recovers the low grade waste heat, i.e. medium and high temperature secondary steam and high temperature flue gas to provide domestic heat, winter heating and summer cooling for the single or double effect lithium bromide refrigerator, thus realizing the cogeneration of cold, heat and electricity.
Variable air volume air-conditioning system
Variable air volume system is composed of variable frequency central air conditioning system with variable air volume (VAV) terminal equipment, is a high comfort, low energy consumption of the air conditioning system.
Variable air volume systems have considerable advantages over conventional such systems.
All the energy-consuming devices in the system can be adjusted by frequency conversion to adjust the energy output, and even under the common condition of lower load, they can work at a higher efficiency through frequency conversion, saving a lot of energy.
Each room in the system can independently start and stop and adjust the temperature, and does not affect each other, creating a high degree of comfort for users.
Inverter technology is used to reduce the energy output to meet the load demand through frequency regulation of chillers, pumps, fans and other equipment when the building air conditioning load demand changes (such as changes in indoor personnel, outdoor temperature, solar radiation intensity). The overall energy-saving effect can reach 30-40%.
Water utilization system
The water treatment system is the living wastewater, cooling water, production wastewater and other water sources have been up to the standard discharge, through the materialization or biochemical treatment, to meet the national “living miscellaneous water quality standards”, and then back to the toilet flushing, irrigation lawn, car wash, industrial recycling water and cleaning water. Make full use of limited water resources, replace the same amount of tap water, and reduce the running load of the city sewage treatment plant, which is a good deed for the country and the people for the benefit of future generations.
Drainage noise treatment system
There are several types of noise coming into a house in general
- Noise from the outdoors is transmitted to the interior through exterior walls and windows.
- Noise from upstairs activities through the floor slab into the room below.
- Noise generated by the flowing water hitting the pipe wall in the sewer.
External shading systems and window systems that effectively block outdoor noise.
Underfloor acoustic pads to prevent noise from entering the room from above.
Drainage noise treatment system ;
Drainage noise system – same level drainage.
The same floor drainage system from Europe, has been forty to fifty years of history, although the system into the Chinese market is not long, but the rapid development, in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangdong regions have more applications.
Inter-floor drainage: drainage branch pipe through the floor, connected to the riser in the ceiling of the lower floor tenants.
The same floor drainage: the same floor drainage branch pipe and the main drainage branch pipe are not through the floor, connected to the main drainage riser in the same floor.
HDPE piping systems.
Concealed system installation components.
Sanitary apparatus that goes with the same level of drainage.
Water storage bends.
Advantages of same level drainage.
Co-layer drainage systems offer the following advantages over traditional compartmentalized drainage systems.
Soundproofing: installed in front of the wall, the false wall provides soundproofing and visual enhancement.
Independence: in the bathroom, the pipes do not cross the floor, enjoying true independence of ownership, even if the repair does not need to cross the floor.
Freedom: the room design and interior space layout more flexible, just adjust the drainage branch pipe, you can achieve personalized decoration.
Water conservation: the use of smooth inner surface HDPE pipes and unique tank design, improve the drainage of the system to achieve real water-saving function.
Economy: the use of the same layer drainage technology, greatly reducing the system’s force pipe, branch pipe and the number of accessories, less materials and construction, cost-effective.
Reliable connection: The PE pipe chosen adopts hot melt connection, which not only has high connection strength, but also prevents leakage and ensures safe use for 50 years.
Central dust extraction system
The concept of a central dust extraction system is to separate the host machine from the vacuum area and exhaust the filtered air to the outdoors. This not only solves the problem of poor indoor hygiene, but also eliminates secondary contamination after dusting.
Central dust collection system is to place the vacuum host in a place with low health requirements, such as: underground equipment floor, garage, clean room, etc. The vacuum ducts are embedded into the wall, and outside the wall only the vacuum socket as the size of an ordinary power socket is left, when you need to clean just insert a hose into the vacuum port, then the system automatically starts the host switch, and all the size of dust, paper dust, cigarette butts, harmful microorganisms, even in the guest room, can be removed. Undesirable odors, such as smoke, are transmitted through tightly sealed pipes to a central collection station. Full or partial cleaning can be carried out by anyone, at any time, ensuring the cleanest possible indoor environment.
The cleaning capacity of the central dust collection system is 5 times higher than that of a general vacuum cleaner, and the hose length can be selected arbitrarily. This kind of system has been a compulsory system in Europe and the United States, and there are many projects in use in China.
Food Waste Disposal System
Food waste, which accounts for a large proportion of municipal waste, not only affects the indoor environment, but is also a breeding ground for pests and the spread of diseases.
The food waste treatment system is a purely foreign product that was only introduced into China by a very few foreign manufacturers in the early 1990s.
At present, food waste disposal system has been used in many high-end decorated houses in Beijing, including Feng Shang International, Vanke, Olympic Garden, Huaxin International, Zhujiang Imperial View, etc. A large amount of food waste is generated every day through the kitchen.
A large amount of food waste generated every day goes directly into the septic tank through the food waste disposer installed under the sink drain in the kitchen.